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Samenvatting - Powerpoints Immunotech
1 Innate Immune System
What are the differences in specificity between innate and adaptive immune response?
innate recognizes PAMPs while adaptive recognizes nearly everything.
What are differences in receptor diversity between innate and adaptive immune system?
innate receptors are germline-encoded, adaptive receptors are made via gene rearrangement and thus more different.
What are humoral components of the innate immune system?
acute phase proteins, complement system and cytokines
What are cellular components of the immune system?
granulocytes, macrophages, DCs and NKs
How are acute phase proteins induced?
TNF alpha, IL 6 and IL1
What is MBL?
Mannose binding lectin, an acute phase protein
What is CRP?
C-reactive protein, an acute phase protein
What effects does the complement system have on bacteria and cells?
bacteria: lysis, opsonisation
cells: phagocytosis, degranulation of mast cells
Describe the pathway of complement activation.
The pathogen effects C3 in such a way that is decomposes. C3b coats the pathogen to facilitate phagocytosis. Cytokines are formed that decompose C5 and activate C9, which forms the Membrane attack complex to destroy the pathogen
What are Type I Interferons?
INF alpha and beta, are produced by infected cells after TLR activation so neighbour cells differentiate into an anti-viral state.
Which functions do granulocytes have?
neutrophil: kill phagocytosed microbes, promote inflammation
eosinophil: produce histamine to induce vasodilation, increase capillary permeability and chemotaxis
basophil: recruit immune cells, extracellular killing of large microbes
Which cytokines are produced by macrophages and DCs?
IL 1, IL6, IL8 and TNF alpha
Into which cells can macrophages differentiate?
liver: Kupffer cells
lung: alveolar macrophages
Which cytokines stimulate monocytes to become macrophages or DCs?
macrophages: monocyte colony stimulating factor
What is iNOS?
inducible nitric oxide synthase
What is an opsonin and why are they important?
antibodies and C3b, both facilitate phagocytosis
How are macrophages activated?
via TLRs, the CD40 ligand of T lymphocytes or NK-cell derived IFN gamma
How can NKcells activate macrophages?
macrophages phagocytose and produce IL12, which in turn makes NK cells secrete IFN gamma, leading to killing of phagocytosed microbes
How does the balancing in NKcells work?
an antigen activates protein tyrosine kinase, removing phosphate, while MHC1 induces protein tyrosine phosphatase, adding phosphate
How does leukocyte recruitment work?
Selectin is expressed on blood vessel walls and binds macrophages. If IL8 is produced, the cell will activate its integrin receptors to effectively bind to the vessel wall.
What are PRRs and name examples!
Pattern Recognition Receptor like TLRs, Nod-like receptors and RIG like receptors
What are PAMPs?
Pattern recognition receptors like LPS, peptidoglycan or ds RNA
What are Thp cells?
T cell precursor cells
Into which types of cells can Thp cells differentiate?
Th1, Th17, Th2, Th3, iTreg, nTreg and Tr1
Which cytokines induce Th1, which supresses and which are secreted?
IFN gamma induces
IL 12 supresses
INF gamma is secreted
Which cytokines induce Th2, which supresses and which are secreted?
TGF beta & IL6 induce
IL17 and IL22 are secreted
Which cytokines induce Th2 and which are secreted?
IL4, IL5 and IL13 are secretedLees volledige samenvattingThis summary is one of the 380.000 other summaries available on this platform. Learn more about your Study Smart Package.