Powerpoints Immunotech

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Samenvatting - Powerpoints Immunotech

  • 1 Innate Immune System

  • What are the differences in specificity between innate and adaptive immune response?

    innate recognizes PAMPs while adaptive recognizes nearly everything.

  •  What are differences in receptor diversity between innate and adaptive immune system?

     

    innate receptors are germline-encoded, adaptive receptors are made via gene rearrangement and thus more different.

  • What are humoral components of the innate immune system?

     

    acute phase proteins, complement system and cytokines

  • What are cellular components of the immune system?

     

    granulocytes, macrophages, DCs and NKs

  • How are acute phase proteins induced?

    TNF alpha, IL 6 and IL1

  • What is MBL?

    Mannose binding lectin, an acute phase protein

  • What is CRP?

    C-reactive protein, an acute phase protein

  • What effects does the complement system have on bacteria and cells?

    bacteria: lysis, opsonisation

    cells: phagocytosis, degranulation of mast cells

  • Describe the pathway of complement activation.

     

    The pathogen effects C3 in such a way that is decomposes. C3b coats the pathogen to facilitate phagocytosis. Cytokines are formed that decompose C5 and activate C9, which forms the Membrane attack complex to destroy the pathogen

     

  • What are Type I Interferons?

     

    INF alpha and beta, are produced by infected cells after TLR activation so neighbour cells differentiate into an anti-viral state.

  • Which functions do granulocytes have?

    neutrophil: kill phagocytosed microbes, promote inflammation

    eosinophil: produce histamine to induce vasodilation, increase capillary permeability and chemotaxis

    basophil: recruit immune cells, extracellular killing of large microbes

     

  • Which cytokines are produced by macrophages and DCs?

    IL 1, IL6, IL8 and TNF alpha

  • Into which cells can macrophages differentiate?

    CNS: microglia

    liver: Kupffer cells

    lung: alveolar macrophages

    bone: osteoclasts

  • Which cytokines stimulate monocytes to become macrophages or DCs?

     

    macrophages: monocyte colony stimulating factor

    DCs: FIt3

  • What is iNOS?

     

    inducible nitric oxide synthase

  • What is an opsonin and why are they important?

    antibodies and C3b, both facilitate phagocytosis

  • How are macrophages activated?

    via TLRs, the CD40 ligand of T lymphocytes or NK-cell derived IFN gamma

  • How can NKcells activate macrophages?

    macrophages phagocytose and produce IL12, which in turn makes NK cells secrete IFN gamma, leading to killing of phagocytosed microbes

  • How does the balancing in NKcells work?

    an antigen activates protein tyrosine kinase, removing phosphate, while MHC1 induces protein tyrosine phosphatase, adding phosphate

  • How does leukocyte recruitment work?

    Selectin is expressed on blood vessel walls and binds macrophages. If IL8 is produced, the cell will activate its integrin receptors to effectively bind to the vessel wall.

  • What are PRRs and name examples!

     

    Pattern Recognition Receptor like TLRs, Nod-like receptors and RIG like receptors

  • What are PAMPs?

    Pattern recognition receptors like LPS, peptidoglycan or ds RNA

  • What are Thp cells?

    T cell precursor cells

  • Into which types of cells can Thp cells differentiate?

    Th1, Th17, Th2, Th3, iTreg, nTreg and Tr1

     

  • Which cytokines induce Th1, which supresses and which are secreted?

     

    IFN gamma induces

    IL 12 supresses

    INF gamma is secreted

     

  •  

    Which cytokines induce Th2, which supresses and which are secreted?

     

    TGF beta & IL6 induce

    IL23 supresses

    IL17 and IL22 are secreted

  • Which cytokines induce Th2 and which are secreted?

    IL4 induces

    IL4, IL5 and IL13 are secreted

     

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Voorbeelden van vragen in deze samenvatting

What are the differences in specificity between innate and adaptive immune response?
1
 What are differences in receptor diversity between innate and adaptive immune system?  
1
What are humoral components of the innate immune system?  
1
What are cellular components of the immune system?  
1
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