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Samenvatting - Organizational behaviour
1 What is organizational behavior
Which management function are there?
Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
Who created the management funtions?
At first there where 5 managemet roles: Planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling
Which management roles are there and who created them?
Interpersonal: Figurehead, leader, and laison
Informational: Monitor, disseminator, and sporkesperson
Decisional: Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, resource allocator, and Negotiator.
Which management skills are there and who created them?
Robert kate: Technical, Human, and Conceptual skills
Which type of managers are there? And why are they different
Average managers: focus on traditional management
Succeful managers: focus on Networking
Effective managers: focus on comminucation and HRM
1.1 What managers do
Managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources and direct the activities of others to attain goals.
Managers do their work in an organization, which is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or a set of goals.
1.1.1 Management functions
The four management functions:
The planning function encompasses defining an organization's goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
Managers are also responsible for designing an organization's structure. This includes determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
When managers motivate employees, direct the activities of others, select the most effective communication channels or resolve conflicts among members, they're engaging in leading.
To ensure that things are going as they should, management must monitor the organization's performance. Actual performance is then compared with the previously set goals. If there are any significant deviations, it is management's job to get the organization back on track.
1.1.2 Management roles
Managers perform 10 different roles that can be grouped as being primarily (1) interpersonal, (2) informational and (3) decisional.
Symbolic head; required to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature.
Responsible for hiring, training, motivating and disciplining employees.
Maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favours and information.
Receives a wide variety of information; serves as nerve centre of internal and external information of the organization.
Transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization.
Transmits information to outsiders on organization's plans, policies, actions and results; serves as expert on organization's industry. They represent the organization to outsiders.
Searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change. They initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization's performance.
Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances.
Makes or approves significant organizational decisions.
Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations, in which they discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit.
1.1.3 Management skills
Robert Katz has identified three essential management skills: technical, human and conceptual.
Technical skills encompass the ability to apply specialised knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialised expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job.
Human skills encompass the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. Because managers get things done through other people, they must have good human skills to communicate, motivate and delegate.
Managers must have the mental ability to analyse and diagnose complex situations. These tasks require conceptual skills. Decision making, for instance, requires managers to identify problems, develop alternative solutions to correct those problems, evaluate those alternative solutions, and select the best one. This all requires the ability to rationally process and interpret information.
1.1.4 Effective versus successful managerial activities
Four managerial activities:
Decision making, planning and controlling.
Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork.
Human resource management
Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training.
Socialising, politicking and interacting with outsiders.
Studies show that managers who are successful (defined in terms of the speed of promotion within their organization) had a very different emphasis from managers who were effective (defined in terms of the quantity and quality of their performance and the satisfaction and commitment of their employees).
Traditional management (13%), Communication (28%), Human resource management (11%) and Networking (48%).
Traditional management (19%), Communication (44%), Human resource management (26%) and Networking (11%).