Kaplan PCAT 2016-2017 Strategies, Practice, and Review

by (1st)
ISBN-10 1506200907 ISBN-13 9781506200903
618 Flashcards en notities
1 Studenten

Studeer slimmer met eFaqt samenvattingen

  • Beschikbaar voor computer, tablet, telefoon en op papier
  • Vragen met antwoorden over de leerstof
  • Ongelimiteerde toegang tot 300.000 online samenvattingen
  • Tools voor slim studeren & timers voor betere resultaten

Bekijk deze samenvatting

PREMIUM samenvattingen zijn gecontroleerd op kwaliteit en speciaal geselecteerd om je leerdoelen nog sneller te kunnen bereiken!

Samenvatting - Kaplan PCAT 2016-2017 Strategies, Practice, and Review

  • 3.1 Cellular Biology

  • Fluid Mosaic Model
    Cell Membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded throughout. The lipids and many of the proteins can move freely within the membrane.
  • Histones
    Structural Proteins, Join with DNA to form chromosomes.
  • Nucleolus
    Dense structure in the nucleus where rRNA synthesis occurs
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Network of membrane enclosed spaces
    • Involved in transport of material throughout cell, especially those to be secreted
  • Rough ER
    Contains Ribosomes, involved in protein production
  • Smooth ER
    Contains no ribosomes, involved in metabolism and production of lipids
  • Golgi Apparatus
    Receives vesicles from smooth ER, modifies and repackages them, distributes via exocytosis
  • Mitochondria
    Sites of respiration, supply energy in form of ATP. Composed of an inner and outer phospholipid bilayer
  • Cytoplasm
    Site of cell's metabolic activity. Contains cytosol and all organelles
  • Vacuoles/ Vesicles
    Membrane bound sacs within the ell. Transport and store materials. Vacuoles > vesicles, mostly found in plants.
  • Centrioles
    Microtubule structures, involved in spindle organization during cell division. Are not membrane bound. Come in pairs organized at right angles to each other. Not found in plant cells
  • Lysosomes
    Membrane bound vesicles containin hydrolytic enzymes. Break down material ingested in cell.
  • Cytoskeleton
    Provides shape/ support of cell. Composed of:

    1. Microtubules - hollow tubes made of tubulin. Provide a framework
    2. Microfilaments - solid rods made of actin, important for cell movement/ support
    3. Intermediate filaments
  • Simple Diffusion
    • Net movement of dissolved particles down concentration gradient
    • Passive, no external energy required
  • Osmosis
    • Simple diffusion of water across a membrane
    • Flows from region of lower solute conc. to higher conc.
  • Plasmolysis
    Osmosis of water flows from inside of cell to outside, causing cell to shrivel
  • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Passive Transport
    • Does not require external energy
    • Net movement of particles down their concentration gradient through special channels or carrier proteins
  • Active Transport
    • Net movement of particles against their concentration gradient via transport proteins
    • Requires external enery
  • Energy independent carriers
    • Active transport carriers
    • facilitate movement of compounds along a concentration gradient
  • Symporters
    • Active Transport Carrier molecule
    • Carries 2 or more ions in the same direction across a membrane
  • Antiporters
    • Active transport carrier molecule
    • Exchanges 2 or more ions for another ion across a membrane
  • Pumps (active transport)
    Energy dependent carriers involved in active transport
  • Pinocytosis
    Endocytosis of fluids or small particles
  • Phagocytosis
    Endocytosis of large particles
  • 3 Methods of Intracellular movement
    • Brownian Movement
    • Cyclosis/ Streaming
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Brownian Movement
    Method of Intracellular circulation, Kinetic energy spreads suspended particles throughout cytoplasm of the cell
  • Cyclosis/ Streaming
    Method of Intracellular circulation, Circular motion of the cytoplasm around the cell transports molecules
  • The cell cycle
    Entire series of events leading to cellular replication
  • Interphase
    • Preceeds Meiosis or Mitosis
    • Period of growth and chromosome replication
    • Cells are in interphase 90% of life
    • Overview: Cell continues normal life function, chromosomes are replicated to form sister chromatids joined at the centromere, DNA is uncoiled in the form of chromatin
    • There are 3 Phases of Interphase followed by M phase (Meiosis or Mitosis)
  • Cells are in this phase of replication for 90% of their life
    Interphase
  • Interphase G1
    • Initiates interphase. 
    • Active growth phase. Cell grows and synthesizes proteins
    • Lenght of G1 determines length of cell cycle
  • Interphase S
    •  Period of DNA synthesis
  • Interphase G2
    • Cells prepare to divide, grows and synthesizes proteins
  • Mitosis
    • Division and distribution of cell's DNA into 2 daughter 
    • Occurs in somatic (non-sex) cells
    • Consists of Nuclear Division (karyokenesis) followed by cell division (cytokinesis)
  • Phases of Mitosis
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  • Karyokinesis
    Nuclear Division
  • Cytokinesis
    Cell Division
  • Mitosis - Prophase
    • Chromosomes condense
    • Centriole pairs move to opposite ends of cell
    • Spindle apparatus forms
    • Nuclear Membrane dissolves
  • Mitosis - Metaphase
    • Centriole pairs are at opposit ends of the cell
    • Spindle fibers attach to chromatids at kinetochore (protein on chromatid)
    • Spindle fibers align the chromatids on the cell equator, forming the metaphase plate
  • Metaphase Plate
    Alignment of chromatids along the center of thecell during metaphase
  • Mitosis - Anaphase
    • Centromeres Split so each chromatid has itsown centromere
    • Sister chromatids separate, pulled towards oppsoite ends of the cell by shortening of the spindle fibers
  • Mitosis - Telophase
    • Spindle apparatus disappears
    • Nuclear membrane forms around 2 sets of chromosomes
    • Each new nucleus contains the same diploid number as the parent cell
    • Chromosomes uncoil, resuming their interphase form
  • Mitosis - Cytokinesis
    • Cytoplasm divides into 2 daughter cells
    • Cleavage furrow forms (in animal cells), cell membrane indents pinching around the ell until it separates the 2 nuclei
    • In plant cells, it is a cell plate that forms between the two nuclei, splitting the cell in half
  • Meiosis
    • Reproduction of sexual cells
    • 2 parents are involved
    • Involves fusion of 2 gametes, 2 divisions of primary sex cell, and p
    • First division produces 2 diploid cells
    • Second division produces four haploid daughter cells
  • Meiosis - Prophase 1
    • Chromatin condeses into chromosomes
    • spindle apparatus forms
    • Nuclear membrane disappears
    • Homologous chromosomes intertwine via synapsis forming chromosomes containing 2 sister chromatids, each with a pair of homologous chromosomes = a tetrad
    • Crossing overof homologous chromosomes occurs
  • Tetrad (Meiosis)
    A pair of sister chromatids, containing 2 pairs of homologous chromosomes. Exists in Prophase 1
  • Meiosis - Metaphase 1
    • Tetrads align at equatorial plate
    • Each pair attaches to a spindle fiber at the kinetochore
  • Meiosis - Anaphase 1
    • Homologous pairs separate, pulled to opposite ends of the cell via disjunction
    • Mendelian law states that chromosomes of paternal origin separate from chromosomes of maternal origin, so that the daughter cell will have a unique gene pool of maternal and paternal origin
  • Nondisjunction
    Occurs when cells do not separate correctly during meiosis. Results in daughter cells with incorrect number of chromosomes
  • Meiosis - Telophase 1
    • Nuclear membrane forms around each set of sister chromatids at either side of the cell
Lees volledige samenvatting
Maak nu je eigen eFaqt account aan voor toegang tot deze en duizenden andere hoge kwaliteit samenvattingen.

Voorbeelden van vragen in deze samenvatting

Fluid Mosaic Model
1
Histones
1
Nucleolus
1
Endoplasmic Reticulum
1
Pagina 1 van 150