Historical and conceptual issues in psychology

by (2009)
ISBN-10 0273718185 ISBN-13 9780273718185
170 Flashcards en notities
6 Studenten

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Samenvatting - Historical and conceptual issues in psychology

  • 1.1 The invention of writing

  • Preliterate civilisation
    Civilisation before writing was invented.
  • Animism
    Explanation of the workings of the world and the universe by means of spirits with human-like characteristics.
  • Pictogram
    An information-conveying sign that consists of a picture resembling the person, animal or object it represents.
  • Phonogram
    A sign that represents a sound or a syllable of spoken language: forms the basic of writing systems.
  • Logograph
    A sign representing a spoken word, which no longer has a physical resemblance to the word's meaning.
  • Scholastic method
    Study method in which students unquestioningly memorise and recite texts that are thought to convey unchanging truths.
  • Name 3 features of the preliterate civiliation.
    • Knowledge confined to 'know-how' without theoretical knowledge of the underlying principles.
    • Fluidity of knowledge.
    • Collection of myths and stories about the beginning of the universe (animism).
  • Why was the invention of writing so important?
    Written records form an external memory, which allows an accumulation of knowledge.
  • 1.2 The discovery of numbers

  • Place coding system
    System in which the meaning of a sign not only depends on its form but also on its position in a string: is used for instance in Arabic numerals.
  • Why were the number systems of the Greek and Romans suboptimal?
    Their notation did not assign a meaning to the place of the digits. (Such a place coding system was developed in india. This required the invention of a symbol for 0). 
  • 1.3 The Fertile Crescent

  • Fertile Crescent
    Region in the Middle East with a high level of civilisation around 3.000 BCE: included the Ancient Mesopotamian and the Ancient Egyptian civilisation.
  • Name the 2 civilisations in the Fertile Crescent, and their main contributions.
    • Ancient Mesopotamia: mathematics (algebra, astronomy, calendar).
    • Ancient Egypt: geometrical knowledge, calendar, hieroglyphs.
  • 1.4 The Greeks

  • Philosophy
    Critical reflection on the universe and human functioning: started in Ancient Greece.
  • Syllogism
    Argument consisting of three propositions: the major premise, the minor premise, and the conclusion. The goal of logic is to determine which syllogisms lead to valid conclusions and which not.
  • Plato founded the Academy and Aristotle the Lyceum. With 2 other schools they educated students for centuries. Name the 2 other schools and were they emphasised on.
    • Stoa, which had an emphasis on self-control.
    • Garden of Epicurus, which emphasised the enjoyment of simple pleasures.
  • Under Alexander the Great, there was significant expansion and interaction with other cultures. To which culture did this led, and what signified this culture?
    Hellenistic culture (shift to Alexandria), Where knowledge became more mathematical and specialised.
  • 1.5 Developments from the roman empire to the end of the middle ages

  • Dark Ages
    Name given in the Renaissance to the Middle Ages, to refer to the lack of independent and scientific thinking in that age.
  • Name 2 features of the Ancient Romans.
    • Assimilated the Greek methods and knowledge.
    • Were more interested in technological advances than in philosophy.
  • name 2 features of the Byzantine Empire
    • Eastern part of the Roman Empire: capital Constantinople; lasted till 1453.
    • Preservation of the legacy of the Ancient Greeks.
  • Name 4 features of the Arab Empire.
    • Founded on Islam: Contained the Fertile Crescent.
    • Translation and exstension of the Greek works.
    • Particularly strong on medicine, astronomy, mathematics (algebra) and optics.
    • occupied most of Spain.
  • Name 3 features of Western Roman Empire.
    • Largest decline in scientific knowledge.
    • Catholic Church main preserver: not very science-orientated.
    • In the renaissance referred to as the 'Dark Ages'.
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Voorbeelden van vragen in deze samenvatting

Name 3 features of the preliterate civiliation.
1
Why was the invention of writing so important?
1
Why were the number systems of the Greek and Romans suboptimal?
1
Name the 2 civilisations in the Fertile Crescent, and their main contributions.
1
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