Group dynamics

by (5ème ed.)
ISBN-10 0495804916 ISBN-13 9780495804918
168 Flashcards en notities
7 Studenten

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Samenvatting - Group dynamics

  • 1.1.1 What is a Group?

  • What is a group?
    two or more individuals connected by and within social relationships
  • What are the unique characteristics of a dyad and of a large group?
    dyad: the group can never be broken down
    large group: subgroups are likely to form
  • What do all groups have in common
    They posses common properties and dynamics (goals, structure etc.)
  • What are the groups detectable qualities?
    interaction
    goals
    interdependence
    structure
    unity
  • What is McGraths circumplex model of group tasks
    1. Generating ideas or plans
    2. Choosing a solution
    3. Negotiating a solution to a conflict
    4. Executing a task
  • Name 4 examples of interdepence
    1. Mutual
    2. Unilateral
    3. Reciprocal
    4. Sequential
  • When a subgroup is formed within a group they...
    exert more influence on the rest of the group than they would individually
  • Groupness is determined by:
    Group cohesion & Entitativity
  • What factors determine a groups entitativity?
    Common fate
    Similarity
    Proximity
  • Name the four types of groups
    Primary groups
    Social groups
    Collective groups
    Categories
  • through which 5 stages goes group development?
    1. Forming phase
    2. Storming phase
    3. Norming phase
    4. Performing phase
    5. Adjourning phase
  • From which different levels is group behavior examined in the multilevel pespective?
    individual, group, organizational or societal
  • 2 Studying in Groups

  • What are the 2 measurement possibilities for measurement of group dynamics?
    Observational and self-report measures
  • What kind of observations of groups can be performed?
    covert, overt and participant
  • In what kind of ways can be observations structured?
    qualitative study: general qualities and characteristics ipv amounts
    structured observational method/quantative study: numeric form
  • What does a structured observational study increases?
    the objectivity of observations
  • Explain the IPA and the SYMLOG systems (structured obs)
    IPA: classify groups in task-oriented and relationship-oriented categories
    SYMLOG: group activities can be classified along 3 dimensions
                       1. dominance vs submissiveness
                       2. friendliness vs unfriendliness
                       3. acceptence vs opposition to authority

    *when observers are trained both systems are valid and reliable

  • About what gives a sociagram an idea?
    about the density of the group
  • What are limitations of self-report measurements?
    - the designing of the question (worded wrong --> lack in validity)
    - biased participants --> no accurate self-reports
  • What kind of research measures are there for group dynamics?
    Case study: in-depth examining, single group or individual
    Experimental study: manipulate, measure, control
    Correlational study: measure at least 2 var., statistical procedure, strenght
                                         and direction of relationship
  • What are the advantages and disadvatanges of a case study?
    advantage: richly detailed qualative description & bona fide groups
    disadvantage: says little about other groups, interpretations influenced by
                             own assumptions & rarely causal relationships
  • With what kind of study can groupthink be studied?
    case study
  • Explain what an experimental study is
    manipulate at least one variable by rondomly assiging to two or more different conditions and measure at least one other variable
  • What is the causal and what the effect variable is the causel-effect relationship?
    causal = independent
    effect = dependent
  • What are the 3 features of an experiment
    independent variable
    depenedent variable
    control over other variables (initial equalities are ruled out by rand. assign.)

  • What are advantages and disadvantages of an experimental study?
    advatanges: inferences about causal relationship
    disadvantages: cannot always control situation efficiently & ad hoc groups
                               differs from bona fide groups
  • What is a correlation study?
    investigator measures two or ore variables to examine strengt and direction of relationship (NO manipulation)
  • What is a difference between a correlational and an experimental study?
    experimental manipulates, correlations study doesn't
  • Name an advantage and disadvantage about correlational studies
    advantage: clearly describes relationships among variables
    disadvantage: yields only limited info about causal relationship
  • What is group affective tone?
    collective emotional mood of the group --> pos gruop affect will lead to pro-gruop actions
  • WHich research method will give good info?
    If you combine them
  • What kind of theoretical persepctives are there?
    motivational & emotional
    behavioural
    systems theory
    cognitive
    biological
  • Explain the social exchange theory (behavioural perspective)
    members of a group will negotiate throughout their interactions to secure greater personal reward
  • What is the system theory perspective?
    groups are complex, adaptive, dynamic systems of interacting individuals --> they gather info, review it and the generate products.

    input-process-output model (IPO model)
  • What is a theory that belongs to the cognitive perspective?
    self-categorization theory
  • What is a theory that belongs to the behavioural perspective?
    evolutionary psychology: patterns of behaviour ultimately stem from evolutionary pressure that increase adaptive social actions and extinguish non-adaptive practices
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Voorbeelden van vragen in deze samenvatting

What is a group?
2
What are the unique characteristics of a dyad and of a large group?
2
What do all groups have in common
2
What are the groups detectable qualities?
2
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