Essential epidemiology: an introduction for students and health professionals

by (2nd ed.)
ISBN-10 0521177316 ISBN-13 9780521177313
288 Flashcards en notities
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Samenvatting - Essential epidemiology: an introduction for students and health professionals

  • 1 Epidemiology is...

  • - Ditstribution = verdeling

    - Determinant = factor gerelateerd aan een ziekte

    - Epidemiologie gaat over gezondheid meten, de oorzaken van ziekte identificeren en gezondheid verbeteren.

    - HALE = health-adjusted life expectancy

    - DALYs = disability-adjusted life years

    - Attack rate = het percentage mensen dat van een bepaald iets ziek wordt.

    - Relative risk = hoe veel meer kans heb je om ziek te worden dan iemand die bijv. iets niet gegeten heeft, het risico om ziek te worden, in vergelijking tot mensen die het niet hebben gegeten en toch ziek worden: attack rate/het percentage dat ziek werd zonder het gegeten te hebben

    - Public health epidemiology of Infectious disease epidemiology

    - Occupational epidemiology: observaties van ziektes, gelinkt aan beroepen

    - Molecular epidemiology en clinical epidemiology: kijken naar genen

    - Clinical epidemiology is meer gericht op individuen dan op populaties

    - -What disease

      -Who is ill

      -Where do they live

      -When did they become ill

      -Why did they become ill

    - Descriptive epidemiology: person, place, time

    - Eerst kijken naar hele groep, dan patronen ontdekken.

    - Description --> causation (bijna altijd interactie tussen genetische en omgevings factoren) --> reduce exposure --> geschiedenis en prognose

    - Standardised mortality ratios = relative risk

    - Analytische studies: kijkt naar verbanden tussen mogelijke oorzaken en ziektes

    - Intervention studies: nieuwe 'preventieve measures, programmes or treatments' maken

     

    - Randomised trial: bij onderzoek moeten mensen willekeurig in groepen ingedeeld worden

    - Confounding: zorgen dat er geen andere factoren meespelen

    - Accurate information

    - Occurence: voorval

    - Relative risk

    - Cause

     

  • Atack rates: van de hoeveel mensen die iets gegeten hebben, werden er hoeveel ziek (%).

    Relative risk: % ziek geworden mensen (van de mensen die het gegeten hebben) / % mensen die het niet gegeten hebben.

     

    Epidemiologische studie: - Welke ziekte is aanwezig – wie is ziek – waar wonen ze – wanneer werden ze ziek – waarom werden ze ziek?

  • What is epidemiology?

    It is about measuring helath, identifying the causes of ill-health and intervening  to improve health. It is about who, where, when, why, and what

  • Relative risk

    Percentage of ill people who ate the food : percentage of ill people who didn't eat the food.

  • What is epidemiology?

    Epidemiology is about measuring health, identifying the causes of ill-health and intervening  to improve health

  • Occupational epidemiology: observations of diseases linked to occupations
    Molecular epidemiology: aims to understand how variations in genes and their products affect growth, form and function of cells and tissues.
    Clinical epidemiology: is focused on enhancing clinical decisions to benefit individual patients, rather than populations.
    Descriptive epidemiology: Three questions are answered for this kind of epidemiology; Who is ill? Where do they live? When did they become ill? The mantra is: 'person, place, time'.
  • What is relative risk?

    The risk of sickness in those who ate the food relative to those who did not eat the food

  • How to calculate the relative risk?

     

    Attack Rate (%) who ate the food/ Attack Rate (%) who didn't eat the food
    The risk of people who didn't eat the food, relative to the ris of people who ate the food.

  • Attack rate

    Percentage of people who became ill.

  • What epidemiologists do;
    -Descriptive studies by person, place and time
    -Analytic studies 
    -Intervention studies

  • What does HALE and DALY stands for?
    Health Adjusted Life Expectancy and Disability Adjusted Life Years.
  • A large part of public health is about identifying health problems within a community, identifying what is causing the problems and then testing possible solutions to try to resolve of reduce the problem. 
  • Ideas generated by descriptive studies can be further examined in analytical studies, looking for associations between potential causal agents and diseases. When an association is found the challenge is to evaluate this in order to determine whether something really causes disease or is linked to it secondarily. 
  • Intervention studies evaluate new preventive treatments and monitor the effectiveness of these intervention programmes after they have been implemented.
  • what is epidemie?

    the occurrence of new cases of a disease in a given population, during a 

    given time period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is "expected" (based on recent experience)

  • When a study is done, it is very important that you compare apples with apples. Health data is meaningful when the diagnostic criteria leading to a case definition is clear, unambiguous and easy to use under a wide range of circumstances. This can be challenging when you try to compare patterns of a disease over time, because over the years diagnostic criteria can change.
  • what is pandemie?

    epidemic that spreads across a large region, for example a continent, 

    or even worldwide.

     

  • what is  endemic?

    : (infectious) disease that is common at a specific place (e.g. malaria)

    ↔ epidemic: at specific time

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