Python programming : an introduction to computer science

by (2nd ed.)
ISBN-10 1590282418 ISBN-13 9781590282410
89 Flashcards & Notes
5 Students

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Samenvatting - Python programming : an introduction to computer science

  • 1 Computers and Programs

  • Understand the respective roles of hardware and software in a computing system
    Software (programs) rules the hardware (the physical machine)
  • Learn what computer scientists study and the techniques that they use
    Computer science is all about what can be computated. The computer scientist will use mathematical analysis and the comuter to validate and refine hypethesis.
  • Understand the basic design of a modern computer
    A computer's brain is called the CPU (Central Processing Unit). The CPU takes programs and data from the main memory (RAM or Random Access Memory). Fourthermore a computer consists of secundary memory, input and output devices.
  • Understand the form and function of computer languages.
    High-level computing languages consist of human readable code. Low-level language consists of code the computer can use. High-level code is either comilated into low-level code or intepreted.
  • Begin using the Python programming language.
    print( "Hello World!" )
  • Learn about chaotic models and their implications for computng
    A caotic model can have a ver different outcme even if the input is slightly different. This makes certain tasks difficult for computers.
  • 1.1 The Universal Machine

  • One of the remarkable discoveries of comuter science is the realization that all (different) computers have the same power; with suitable programming, each computer can basically do all the things that any other computer can do.
  • 1.2 Program Power

  • Software (programs) rules the hardware (the physical machine).
  • 1.3 What is Computer Science?

  • The fundamental question of computer science is simply what can be computed?
  • The design of algorithms is oe of the most important facets of computer science.
  • Algorithm
    The recipe to solve a problem; the step-by-step process for achieving he desired result.
  • Analysis
    The process of examining algorithms and problems mathematically.
  • Intractable problem
    A problem for which the algorithm takes too long or requires too much memory to be of practical value.
  • [Even] when theoretical analysis is done, experimentation is often needed in order to verfy and refine the analysis.
  • 1.4 Hardware Basics

  • Central Procesing Unit (CPU)
    The Central Processing Uniit (CPU) is the "brains" of a computer.
  • Memory
    The memoory stores programs and data.
  • RAM
    Random Access Memory; main memory
  • The CPU can only directly access information that is stored in main memory (RAM).
  • Main memoory (RAM) is fast, but is is also volatile.
  • Fetch-execute cycle
    The prcess a CPU follows; The forst instruction is frtched, decoded and executed. The cycle comtinues, instruction after instruction.
  • Technically the CPU follows a process called the fetch-execute cycle. The first instruction is retreived from memory, decoded to figure out what it represents and the appropriate action carried out. then the next instruction is fetched, decoded and executed. The cycle continues, instruction after instruction.
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Example questions in this summary

Understand the respective roles of hardware and software in a computing system
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Algorithm
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Analysis
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Intractable problem
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