Summary - Organizational Behaviour
1 the organizational context
what is organizational behaviour
the study of the structure and management of organizations, their environments, and the actions and interactions of their individual members and groups.
- social arrangements: groups of people who interact with each other.
- collective goals: individuals acting together to reach certain goals.
- controlled performance: setting standards, measuring performance, comparing actual with standard, and taking corrective action if necessary (only put effort in things which are worth it)
groups can achieve more than indivudals acting alone. However the goals of an individual member can differ from the collective goal. This creates organizational dilemma (= how to design organizations that are effective in achieving their goals, while also meeting the needs of those who work for them).
- fundamental attribution error: blame an individual for something, without looking to the influences of the surrounding.
- quality of working life: individual assessment of satisfaction with their job (e.g. working condtions, pay, career opportunities)
organizational effectiveness: how effective an organization is, which is interpreteded differently by different stakeholders. One approach to establish organizational effectiveness is the balanced scorecard, this means determining a range of quantitative and qualitative performance measures to assess the performance of the organisation.
positivism: a perspective which assumes that the world can be understood in terms of causal relationships between observable and measurable variables, and that these relationships can be studied objectively using controlled experiments.
(factor causes changes is independent variable, the effect to which is leads is the dependent variable. e.g. eat more salt, blood pressure rises: salt = independent, blood pressure = dependent). To measure something, you need an operational definition: a method for quantifying the variable.
- variance theory: approach to explain organizational behaviour based on universal relationships between indpendent and dependent variables which can be defined and measured precisely.
constructivism: a perspective which argues that our social and organizational worlds have no ultimate objective truth or reality, but are instead determined by our shared experiences, meanings and interpretations (opposite positivism).
- process theory: approach to explain organizational behaviour based on narratives which show how many factors, combining and interacting over time in particular context, are likely to produce the outcomes of interest.
pay for performance: more paid for better results. this is nog good, because for example a doctor depends on other assistants to perform good. So rewarding the doctor alone is wrong.
evidence-based management: systematically using the best available research evidence to inform decisions about how to mange people and organizations.
- an area where evidence-based management is often used: human resource management: the function responsible for establishing integrated personnel policies to support organization strategy (overlapping with OB).
discretionary behaviour: freedom to decide how work is going to be performed by employees. postive: putting in extra time and effort. negative: withholding information and cooperation.