Summary Europe on the move

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Summary - Europe on the move

  • 1 Manchester and the Industrial Revolution

  • Why is Manchester called the rock 'n' goal capital of the World?
    It is the leading music city in Europe.
  • What and why was the name given to Manchester in the nineteenth century?
    Cottonopolis, when everything revolved around the textile industry.
  • Where and when did the Industrial Revolution begin?
    During the course of the eighteenth century, Manchester became the world's first industrialized city.
  • What is the Industrial Revolution?
    The period when there was a widespread change from products made by hand to products made by using machines (including steam-powered machines) in large factories.
  • What kind of city was Manchester?
    a textile city. All the textile factories were located on or close to the coalfields.
  • What were the means of production?
    coal, that was needed for the steam-driven machines in the factories.
  • What were factors that determinated the whre the factories could be located?
    The location of the coalfields and the cost of transport, during the IR this was not much more than about 10km away from coal mines.
  • What are location factors?
    Factor that partly determines where a company is located.
  • Why was there a lot of knowledge and experience Manchester in the region?
    Manchester and the surrounding area, processing wool was a traditional craft, carried out for centuries by spinners and weavers.
  • What brought about a revolution?
    the steam engine, because one machine could power dozens of weaving looms and spinning machines.
  • What did the steam engine heralded?
    the begining of mass production and inlarge factores. Cotton, the raw mterial, was imported cheaply throuh the port of Liverpool.
  • How did Manchester grow?
    very fast: the population increased sixfold between 1771 and 1831. In 1851 it was 455000. Leading position in world economy
  • How have the location factors from the early period hanged completely?
    Heavy coal made way for weightless electricity, and other countries took the lead with more modern machines.
  • What caused a serious crisis in industry after 1970?
    Cheap labour in low-wageconomies. the anufacturers couldd not compete with competition from Asia, for example.
  • How has Manchester gradually recovered from decline, poverty and unemployment?
    Thanks to urban renewal and a shift to the service sector, Mnchester has again becoe a modern ity that is full of life
  • Why is there still a divide between the Norht and the South of the United Kingdom?
    after 1970 all the old, raw-material-dependent industrial regions in the UK faced serious problems. Many companies went bankrupt. Although the old industrial areas are gradually recovering, incomes are lower and there is more unemployment.
  • 1.1 G 127, 129, 130

  • What is mass production?
    this means that they make a lot of the same produt at the same time
  • Which two kinds of industry are there?
    heavy industry and light industry
  • What is heay industry?
    That describes busiesses that use a lot of raw materials suh as coal, iron ore and rude oil.
  • Where is heavy industry always located?
    on a large site with lots of buildings, chimneys and installations.
  • In which three places can you find heavy industry?
    - old mining areas
    - on the coast
    - the end of a pipeline
  • Why was heavy industy built near old mining areas?
    When the industrial ere began aroudn 1800, it was diffiult to ransport coal and iron ore in the large quantities that the fatories needed. Industries that used a lot of raw materials herefore built factories near the coal or iron ore mines.
  • Why is heavy industry build on the coast?
    There is a lot of heavy industry near depp water, especially along the coast. That makes it easier for mammoth tankers to deliver crude oil or iron ore.
  • Why is heavy industry stationed at the end of the pipeline?
    Crude oil is transported through pipelines. So oil refineries can be built anywhere in the hinterland as long as there is an oil pipeline nearby.
  • What is most industry?
    light industry
  • What is light industry?
    Businesses in light industry work with semi-finished products or components. The end products og straight to the market
  • What are they also called in English?
    footloose industry
  • Which three means of prodution do you need to make products?
    labour, captial and natura resources
  • How is labour provided?
    by people, by the workers in the primary, secondary and tertiary sector, doing all sorts of jobs.
  • Where do peopel who do paid work in these three setors belong to ?
    the working population.
  • What is unemployed?
    People who are looking for work are desribed as unemployed.
  • What does capital describe?
    all the bilding, machines, tools and vehicles that are needed for prodution.
  • What are natural resources?
    those are needed for production, such as land, minerals and water, come from the natural environment.
  • Where does production start with?
    raw materials
  • Into which two groups do raw materials fall?
    crude raw materials and semi-finished produts
  • What are crude raw materials?
    They come straight from the primar sector and are unprocessed. Crude raw materials are mainly used in heavy industry
  • What are semi-finished produts?
    they come from other industries an are already processed.
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Example questions in this summary

Why is Manchester called the rock 'n' goal capital of the World?
What and why was the name given to Manchester in the nineteenth century?
Where and when did the Industrial Revolution begin?
What is the Industrial Revolution?
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