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Samenvatting - Essentials of international relations
1 Approaches to international relations
How does liberalism work?Human nature is good. Individuals form groups and later states. States follow norms and cooperate.
How does realism work?States exist in an anarchic international system. Each state bases its policies on an interpretation of national interest defined in terms of power.
How does radicalism work?Radical theory is rooted in economics. Individuals are determined by economic class. The state is an agent of international capitalism and the international system is dominated by an international capitalist system.
What is an anarchy?the absence of governmental authority.
What is behaviouralism?A method that proposes that individuals, both alone and in groups, act in patterned ways.
2 The historical context of contemporary international relations
Two core principles that came after the american + french revolutions-absolutist rule is subject to limits imposed by man
What was the aim of the league of nations?It was an intergovernmental organisation designed to prevent all future wars.
What are summits?meetings between leaders.
What is imperialism and what is colonialism?imperialism: the annexation of a distant countrty
colonialism: settling of people from the home country among the native people of a distant territory.
3 facts about the treaties of westphalia-ends 30 years war
-embraced notion of sovereignty
-people began to think in nations and states with own armies
(-core group of people dominating the world
What is a hegemony?When one state is predominant and in power.
difference NATO&Warsaw pact?Nato- western europe+USA+AUS
Warsaw pact- eastern europe
What is the balance of power?When a group of states with about equal powers fear one state growing most powerful, and form alliances.
nuclear deterrence:both places have nuclear weapons, neither willing to use them out of fear.
What was the domino effect?that communism was feared to spread like a chain of dominos falling through asia and beyond.
3 Contending perspectives
3 levels of analysis:-individual (personality, choices, perceptions)
-state (type of govt, type of economic system, national interest)
-international (anarchic characteristics of that system, international/regional organisations and their strengths/weaknesses)
Points about realism.key actors: international system + states.
.view of individual: power seeking, selfish
.view of state:unitary, following national interest, power seeking
.view of international:anarchic, reaches stability in balance of power system
.beliefs about change: low potential, slow structural change
.major theorists: Thucydudes, Hobbes, Morgenthau
What is a theory?a set of propositions and concepts that seeks to explain phenomena.
Points about liberalism.key actors: states, nongovernmental groups, international organizations
.view of individual: basically good, capable of cooperating
.view of state: not autonomous, many interests
.view of international: independence among actors, anarchy
.beliefs about change: probable, desirable process
.major theorists: Kant, Wilson, Montesquieu
Points about radicalism.key actors: social classes, transnational elites, multinationals corporations
.view of individual: actions determined by economic class
.view of state: agent of the structure of international capitalism and executing agent of bourgeosie
.view of international: highly stratified, dominated by international capitalist system
.beliefs about change: radical change desired
.major theorists: Marx, Lenin, Hobson
Points about constructivism.key actor: individuals, collective indentities
.view of individual: major unit, especially elite
.view of state: state behavior shaped by elite beiiefs, collective norms and social identity
.view of interantional: nothing explained by international material structures alone
.belief about change: belief in possibility of evolutionary change
.theorist: alexander Wentds
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Example questions in this summary
What is an anarchy?
What is behaviouralism?
How does realism work?
How does liberalism work?