Summary Class notes - LT 629

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Summary - Class notes - LT 629

  • 1439330400 LT 629

  • early childhood SLA
    People in this life-stage are often assumed to acquire language best, but actually slightly older learners  can catch up if they have enough input 
  • structure-based 
    Linguistic items are taught one at a time usually with a focus on accuracy
  • affective filter
    This metaphor reminds us that stress, anxiety and other negative emotions can inhibit language learning.
  • interlanguage
    The developing, dynamic system of an L2 learner is called this.
  • aptitude
    Pattern recognition abilities and short-term memory are considered part of this.
  • developmental sequences
    English language learners have a predictable sequence in which they learn grammatical morphemes, negation, question formation—with some variation between FLA and SLA
  • TPR
    This technique involves the learner acting out/performing language cues. A whole method based on Innatist Theory was created around this in the 1970s, but now it a popular technique used in various methods. 
  • CALP
    This kind of language proficiency is often less visible and takes longer to learn, but is essential for success with abstract, academic content in school
  • instrumental 
    When you care mostly about test scores or job opportunities, your motivation is primarily of this sort
  • communicative competence
    This consists of four main elements: grammatical, strategic, discourse, and sociolinguistic
  • transfer
    Some errors (or correctness) in a learner’s language may be due to influence from the first language.
  • contrastive analysis
    This is an approach to learner language analysis that focuses mostly on the L1
  • declarative
    Knowledge of rules or other information about how to use the language (metalinguistic knowledge)
  • CLT
    This approach focuses on getting learners to use the language as fluently as possible without too much attention to accuracy  
  • content-based
    In this approach, learners focus more on the academic subject than on the second language which they are using.
  • extroverted
    If you are outgoing & sociable, you may be considered this (but it does not always correlate with better language learning)
  • phonology 
    The acquisition of this language sub-system indeed seems to be most correlated with age
  • comprehensible input
    This refers to input that is challenging but still accessible to the learner
  • recast
    This is when someone repeats what you have said, but in a more target-like way
  • Krashen
    This person states that our ability to acquire new languages declines as we age because of our increasingly higher ‘affective filter’
  • information gap
    An activity in which different learners hold different pieces of information that must be shared to complete the task.
  • ZPD
    This is part of the socio-cultural theory of second language learning and refers to the heightened learning experience that occurs through  interaction/engagement 
  • interactionist
    Output is as important as input as much learning comes from the feedback a speaker gets while attempting to use the language 
  • critical period hypothesis
    This is the claim that there is a time in puberty when access to language ‘acquisition’ is lost, though ‘learning’ is still possible
  • behaviorism
    This theory focuses on habit formation as the primary basis of learning    
  • LAD
    Innatists believe that this exists in every human brain
  • fossilization
    If errors are not addressed early enough in the learning process, they may become “set” and difficult to overcome later
  • noticing
    According to many cognitivists, even if input is comprehensible, learning may not happen without this (Note: It might occur consciously or subconsciously.)

  • 1. Which statement best reflects an interactionist
    approach to First Language Acquisition?
    a.   Children learn language through comprehensible
    input               .
    b.   Children learn language by negotiating meaning
    c. ' Children learn language with scaffolding from
    caregivers
    d.   Children learn language by habit formation

    b.   Children learn language by negotiating meaning
  • 2. When did the boy say he hurt himself?
    When did the boy say how he hurt himself?
    The fact that children who are native speakers of
    English easily understand the difference between
    these two complex questions is used to provide
    support for which perspective on first language acquisition?
    a. Behaviorism
    b. Innatism
    c. Interactionism
    d. Socio-cultural
    b. Innatism
  • 3. Which of the following sentences reveals a later stage
    of language development?
    Child A: I went to school.
    Child B: I goed to school.
    a. Child B because the child is applying a           \
    systematic past tense rule
    b. Child A because the irregular past tense of go
    is used correctly
    C. Child A because the irregular past tense has
    been acquired as an exception
    d. we cannot determine which child is at a later
    stage based on this data
    d. we cannot determine which child is at a later
    stage based on this data
  • 4. Which of the following tends to happen earliest in
    negation development?
    a. correct use with auxiliaries (helping verbs such
    as can, will, might, etc.)
    b. fronting of negation words
    c. correct use with the auxiliary do
    d. correct use within questions
    b. fronting of negation words
  • 5. Which of the following tends to happen latest in
    question development?
    a. use of rising intonation on single Words
    b. fronting of question words
    c. use of rising intonation on a longer statement
    d. correct use of the auxiliary do
    d. correct use of the auxiliary do
  • 6. Innatist and cognitive approaches in SLA vary most
    significantly in their perspective on
    a. the existence of an LAD
    b. the importance of input
    c. the mind-body relationship
    d. the importance of imitation
    a. the existence of an LAD
  • 7. The "affective filter" is most closely associated with
    which theorist?
    a. Skinner
    b. Vygotsky
    c. Krashen
    d. Chomsky
    c. Krashen
  • 8. The zone of proximal development is most closely
    associated with ?
    a. Connectionism
    b. Competition model
    c. Interactionism
    d. Socio-cultural approach
    d. Socio-cultural approach
  • 9. Contrastive analysis was an approach to learner
    language that focused on
    a. errors common to learners from diverse Ll
    backgrounds
    b. predicting errors based on Ll background
    c. discovering the developing systems in leaker
    language
    d. errors that could be easily identified and
    corrected
    b. predicting errors based on Ll background
  • 10. An ELL students says the following:
    The pencil give I to her
    The errors in the speaker's statement is most likely the
    result of
    a. code-switching
    b. developmental processes
    c. negative transfer
    d. avoidance
    c. negative transfer
  • 11. If a 1earner’s L1 and L2 use the same system for
    marking past tense, the learner may benefit from
    a. translation from the L1 to L2
    b. code-switching between the L1 and L2
    c. positive transfer to the L2
    d. having a similar developmental process in both
    c. positive transfer to the L2
  • 12. Strategic competence refers to
    a. appropriate use of cohesion devices and coherence
    rules
    b. accurate use of vocabulary grammar, etc.
    c. manipulation of language to achieve communication
    goals
    d. all of the above
    c. manipulation of language to achieve communication
    goals
  • 13. Communicative competence includes
    a. Grammatical competence
    b. Discourse competence
    c. Sociolinguistic competence
    d. All of the above
    d. All of the above
  • 14. What is a common and often erroneous assumption
    teachers make about their learners:
    a. Evidence of BICS means the learner also has CALP
    b. Evidence of CALP means the learner also has BICS
    c. Students can have BICS and CALP
    d. CALP in ones first language will result in negative
    transfer                                                  
    a. Evidence of BICS means the learner also has CALP
  • 15. CALP refers to
    a. Language students need for academic tasks
    b. fluency for everyday conversation
    c. additive immersion programs
    d. subtractive immersion programs
    a. Language students need for academic tasks
  • 16. Intelligence correlates most closely with
    a.   Declarative knowledge about the L2
    b.   Procedural knowledge about the L2
    c.   Resultative Motivation
    d.   Learner Beliefs
    a.   Declarative knowledge about the L2
  • 17. A desire to pass a language test to get a job is usually
    described as
    a.   Intrinsic motivation
    b.   Integrative motivation
    c.   Resultative motivation
    d.   Instrumental motivation
    d.   Instrumental motivation
  • 18. A desire to become part of a community that speaks
    target language is usually described as
    a.   Extrinsic motivation
    b.   Integrative motivation
    c.   Resultative motivation
    d.   Instrumental motivation
    b.   Integrative motivation
  • 19. Which of the following is true?
    a. Pre-adolescent children are always better
    language learners than adults
    b. Pre-adolescent children will probably acquire
    the pronunciation of a language more
    effectively
    c. Adults will acquire syntax more slowly in the
    first year
    d. Adults will surpass pre-adolescent children in
    the area of phonology
    b. Pre-adolescent children will probably acquire
    the pronunciation of a language more
    effectively.
  • 20. The language system most correlated with age and
    successful L2 acquisition is
    a. Phonology
    b. Morphology
    c. Semantics
    d. a and c
    a. Phonology
  • 21. CPH stands for
    a. Communication Production Hypothesis
    b. Critical Period Hypothesis
    c. Central Phonology Hypothesis
    d. Creative Production Hypothesis
    b. Critical Period Hypothesis
  • 22. Which of the following teaching
    methods/approaches frequently uses listening and
    reading at i +1 ?
    a. grammar translation
    b. immersion/content-based
    c. communicative language teaching
    d. Natural Approach
    d. Natural Approach
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early childhood SLA
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structure-based 
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affective filter
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interlanguage
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